What is Western mark sign? Westermark sign is a chest x-ray finding of oligaemia (clarified area) distal to a large vessel that is occluded by a pulmonary embolus. The focal area of increased translucency due
What is Western mark sign?
Westermark sign is a chest x-ray finding of oligaemia (clarified area) distal to a large vessel that is occluded by a pulmonary embolus. The focal area of increased translucency due to oligaemia is caused by impaired vascularisation of the lung due to primary mechanical obstruction or reflex vasoconstriction.
What is fleischner sign?
The Fleischner sign refers to a prominent central pulmonary artery that can be commonly caused either by pulmonary hypertension or by distension of the vessel by a large pulmonary embolus. It can be seen on chest radiographs, CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), and MR pulmonary angiography (MRPA).
What is a Hampton hump?
Hampton’s hump is a radiological sign consisting of a peripheral, wedge-shaped opacification adjacent to the pleural surface, which represents pulmonary infarction distal to a pulmonary embolus. 1. Owing to good pulmonary perfusion from collateral blood vessels, this sign is rarely seen in clinical practice.
What is pulmonary plethora?
Pulmonary plethora is a term used to describe the appearances of increased pulmonary perfusion on chest radiographs. It is commonly used in pediatric radiology.
What causes Oligemia?
Oligemia may be caused by atrial-pulmonary-vascular reflex vasoconstriction, low right ventricular output, and possibly high levels of atrial natriuretic factor.
What is silhouette sign in chest xray?
In radiology, the silhouette sign refers to the loss of normal borders between thoracic structures. It is usually caused by an intrathoracic radiopaque mass that touches the border of the heart or aorta.
What side is the pulmonary artery on?
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs….
What do Kerley B lines look like?
They are short, fine lines throughout the lungs, with a reticular appearance. They may represent thickening of anastomotic lymphatics or superimposition of many Kerley B lines.
What is cardiac silhouette mean?
Cardiac silhouette refers to the outline of the heart as seen on frontal and lateral chest radiographs and forms part of the cardiomediastinal contour. The size and shape of the cardiac silhouette provide useful clues for underlying disease.
What is pulmonary vascular markings?
Pulmonary vascular markings are normally distinct. Indistinct markings, fissural thickening, and septal lines suggest vascular congestion and radiographic diagnosis of congestive heart failure. The cardiac diameter divided by the widest chest diameter should be less than 60%.
How did the Westermark sign get its name?
Put more simply, the Westermark sign is seldom seen in PE, but when visible on a chest X-ray, it is strongly indicative of PE. It is named after Nils Westermark, a Swedish radiologist. ^ Ray J (2003).
What is the specificity of the Westermark sign?
Sensitivity and specificity. The Westermark sign, like Hampton’s hump (a wedge shaped, pleural based consolidation associated with pulmonary infarction), has a low sensitivity (11%) and high specificity (92%) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.
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What does the Westermark sign mean in chest radiography?
In chest radiography, the Westermark sign is a sign that represents a focus of oligemia (hypovolemia) (leading to collapse of vessel) seen distal to a pulmonary embolism (PE).