What is agranulocytosis? General Discussion. Acquired agranulocytosis is a rare, drug-induced blood disorder that is characterized by a severe reduction in the number of white blood cells (granulocytes) in the circulating blood. The name granulocyte
What is agranulocytosis?
General Discussion. Acquired agranulocytosis is a rare, drug-induced blood disorder that is characterized by a severe reduction in the number of white blood cells (granulocytes) in the circulating blood. The name granulocyte refers to grain-like bodies within the cell.
What is the difference between neutropenia and agranulocytosis?
To be precise, neutropenia is the term normally used to describe absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) of less than 500 cells per microlitre, whereas agranulocytosis is reserved for cases with ANCs of less than 100 cells per microlitre.
What drug causes agranulocytosis?
Drugs that can cause agranulocytosis include: antithyroid medications, such as carbimazole and methimazole (Tapazole) anti-inflammatory medications, such as sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), dipyrone (Metamizole), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) antipsychotics, such as clozapine (Clozaril)
How quickly does agranulocytosis occur?
Agranulocytosis usually develops in the first 3 months after ATD therapy is initiated , but cases after 5 days up to more than 10 years of exposure have also been described .
What are signs and symptoms of agranulocytosis?
Having very low levels of granulocytes in the blood can lead to serious or life-threatening infections. Signs and symptoms of agranulocytosis include fever, chills, weakness, sore throat, sores in the mouth or throat, bleeding gums, bone pain, low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and trouble breathing.
How do you know if you have agranulocytosis?
To diagnose agranulocytosis, your provider will order a blood test. This test, called a complete blood count (CBC), checks neutrophil levels in your blood. Your healthcare provider may also take a sample of your bone marrow to evaluate how your body produces white blood cells.
What are the symptoms of having low white blood cells?
If you have a low white blood cell count, you may:
- Have repeated fevers and infections.
- Get bladder infections that may make it painful to pass urine, or make you urinate more often.
- Get lung infections that cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
- Get mouth sores.
- Get sinus infections and a stuffy nose.
Listen to pronunciation. (ay-GRAN-yoo-loh-sy-TOH-sis) A serious condition that occurs when there is an extremely low number of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Granulocytes are an important part of the immune system and help the body fight infection.
Which drug causes agranulocytosis?
Who is at risk of agranulocytosis?
The cumulative incidence of agranulocytosis is 0.80% after 1 year and 0.91% after 1 1/2 years. Risk is greatest during the first 3 months of treatment and greater among women and the elderly. White-cell counts tend to spike upward before the occurrence of agranulocytosis.
Which antibiotics cause agranulocytosis?
Amoxicillin is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, and amoxicillin-clavulanate is the third most commonly prescribed . There are drugs classically described as the potential cause of neutropenia or agranulocytosis, but amoxicillin/clavulanate is not included in the list.
Is agranulocytosis life threatening?
Agranulocytosis is a life-threatening blood disorder. It happens when the body doesn’t make enough of a type of white blood cells called neutrophils.
Can you cure agranulocytosis?
Agranulocytosis is treatable with medication, but the outlook varies from person to person. Adults over 65 are more likely to experience complications such as sepsis. Agranulocytosis can cause severe problems in people who have other health conditions, such as kidney disease, heart disease or breathing problems.
How do you manage agranulocytosis?
The treatment of acquired agranulocytosis includes the identification and elimination of drugs or other agents that induce this disorder. Antibiotic medications may also be prescribed if there is a positive blood culture for the presence of bacteria or if a significant local infection develops.
Can agranulocytosis be cured?
Common symptoms of agranulocytosis include sudden fever, chills, sore throat, and weakness. Other signs of agranulocytosis may include: Rapid heart rate. Rapid breathing.
How is neutropenia agranulocytosis managed?
Agranulocytosis is characterized by depleted numbers of neutrophils. Agranulocytosis can be managed with hematopoietic growth factors namely, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
What is the prognosis of agranulocytosis?
Agranulocytosis secondary to viral infections is usually self-limited, and patients with such conditions have a good prognosis. Drug-induced agranulocytosis carries a mortality rate of 6-10%.
Does methimazole cause agranulocytosis?
Agranulocytosis is a potentially a life-threatening adverse reaction of Methimazole therapy . Patients should be instructed to immediately report to their physicians any symptoms suggestive of agranulocytosis, such as fever or sore throat. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and aplastic anemia (pancytopenia) may also occur.
What does agranulocytosis mean?
Medical Definition of agranulocytosis. : an acute blood disorder that is marked by a decrease of circulating granulocytes (such as neutrophils) and is characterized especially by weakness, chills, swollen neck, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and jaundice .