How does a tokamak work? In a tokamak, magnetic field coils confine plasma particles to allow the plasma to achieve the conditions necessary for fusion. A central solenoid (a magnet that carries electric current) creates
How does a tokamak work?
In a tokamak, magnetic field coils confine plasma particles to allow the plasma to achieve the conditions necessary for fusion. A central solenoid (a magnet that carries electric current) creates a second magnetic field directed along the “poloidal” direction, the short way around the torus.
What is tokamak technology?
A tokamak (/ˈtoʊkəmæk/; Russian: Токамáк) is a device which uses a powerful magnetic field to confine plasma in the shape of a torus. The tokamak is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices being developed to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power.
How does a tokamak generate electricity?
Inside a tokamak, the energy produced through the fusion of atoms is absorbed as heat in the walls of the vessel. Just like a conventional power plant, a fusion power plant will use this heat to produce steam and then electricity by way of turbines and generators.
How does tokamak not melt?
Researchers had hoped that melting might be avoided by injecting noble gases into the plasma—a superheated state of matter that makes up 99% of the visible universe. A tokamak uses strong magnetic fields to confine a plasma that is heated above 200 million ℃, maximizing the efficiency of hydrogen isotope fusion.
What fuel does tokamak use?
The fuels used in ITER will be processed in a closed cycle. The fusion reaction in the ITER Tokamak will be powered with deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen.
Who invented tokamak?
Igor TammLev ArtsimovichNatan Yavlinsky
The initial design was first theorized by Russian physicist Oleg Lavrentiev in the 1950s, but it wasn’t until a few years later that two Russian physicists— Igor Tamm and Andrei Sakharov—invented what we now know as a Tokamak (though their device is still based on Oleg’s initial idea).
What does tokamak mean in Russian?
The word tokamak is a transliteration of the Russian word токамак, an acronym of either “тороидальная камера с магнитными катушками” —toroidal chamber with magnetic coils, or “тороидальная камера с аксиальным магнитным полем” —toroidal chamber with axial magnetic field.
How much power does a tokamak use?
In total, when JET runs, it consumes 700 – 800 MW of electrical power (the equivalent of 1-2% of the UK’s total electricity usage!). Future reactors will use superconducting magnetic coils, which are much more efficient, so they will not expect to use so much power – maybe 200-300 MW of electrical power.
How many Stellarators are there?
As stellarator configurations are challenging to build, most fusion experiments today are tokamaks (a short form for a Russian expression that translates as ‘toroidal chamber with magnetic coils’). About 60 tokamaks and 10 stellarators are currently operating. Both reactor types have certain advantages.
What does the Office of science do with tokamaks?
The Office of Science maintains world-leading research programs at tokamak user facilities such as the DIII-D National Fusion Facility and the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). FES supports several international collaborations, too. These include projects in Asia as well as ITER in France.
How is a tokamak used in a fusion reactor?
Fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER use a tokamak, which is a combination of magnets that make a toroidal field and poloidal field. The toroidal field has the shape of a torus that surrounds the plasma, and the poloidal field moves in circles around the plasma.
Which is the best description of a tokamak?
A tokamak is a machine that confines a plasma using magnetic fields in a donut shape that scientists call a torus. Fusion energy scientists believe that tokamaks are the leading plasma confinement concept for future fusion power plants.
What makes up the magnetic field in a tokamak?
Basic tokamak components include the toroidal field coils (in blue), the central solenoid (in green), and poloidal field coils (in grey). The total magnetic field (in black) around the torus confines the path of travel of the charged plasma particles.